CATEGORIESeJournalsAustralian Journal of Civil EngineeringVol 6 No.1 Numerical modelling to reduce Baghdad soil subsidence and settlement on locations of sewage systems

Numerical modelling to reduce Baghdad soil subsidence and settlement on locations of sewage systems

Al-Adili, A., Sivakugan, N. & Ren, G
Sewage-related subsidence is a serious problem in Baghdad, and it represents severe damages and disturbances to services. The soils of Baghdad show a wide range of variation in grain size distribution. The aim of this paper is to study strategies to prevent and/or minimise soil subsidence phenomena affecting the sewerage and road systems in Baghdad city. This was achieved through simulation of soil profiles with appropriate properties to a depth up to 12 m at nine different locations by using PLAXIS, a finite element (FE) 2D modelling software. The subsidence and resulting settlements were reduced by providing a geosynthetic-reinforced granular fill placed over a soft soil deposit, as well as through grouting techniques. A simulation of these two types of ground treatments suggests that they have been quite effective in reducing the settlement. By using one layer of geotextile reinforcement with stiffness of 5 kN/m, acceptable and noticeable subsidence and settlement reduction of 12% to 80% were achieved for most of the studied locations. Grouting was modelled as volume change in soft soils and weakness cluster, and it showed reasonable results with settlement reduction from 0.5 to 0.1 mm at the nine different locations. It would appear that the particular simulation chosen for the calculation of this problem model fulfils the two important treatment methods, which are common with the FE simulations.
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